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Khrafstras or xrafstras are some animals or insects that Zoroastrians believe were created by the Evil Spirit (Ahriman).


Khrafstra means wild beast, predator' in Avestan.


Khrafstras include felines, serpents, toads, wasps, ants, scorpions, beasts of prey, most insects and worms.


Zoroastrians not only detest or kill these creatures, but also they consider the killing them to be meritorious act and a way to repel Evil.

Killing Xrafstra is justified by the following criteria

  1. Khrafstra are injurious to the human beings and the cattle.
  2. Khrafstra are harmful to the corn.
  3. Khrafstra have ugly and abominable shapes.
  4. Khrafstra are related to the impurityifth they eat unclean food.
  5. Khrafstra like darkness and have nocturnal natures.
  6. Khrafstra bring in impurity to the pure creation of Ahura Mazda, such as water and earth.