Orc is a word used to refer to various tough and warlike humanoid creatures in various fantasy settings, particularly in the stories of Middle-earth written by J. R. R. Tolkien and derivative fictions.
The word "orc" ultimately comes from Latin Orcus, and has apparently descended by several stages through the meanings "underworld, hell", "devil", "evil creature" and at last "ogre". "Orc" is also present in Old English and in other languages as 'orke', 'ogre', 'huerco' or 'orco'. It cognates to Old Norse þurs "giant, ogre" (both from Common Germanic *thurisaz), in Norse mythology referring to one of the monstrous descendants of the giant Ymir. The use of the word "orc" in any of its monstrous senses should not be confused with various other words that have a superficial resemblance, including Gaelic orc (a Goidelic form of Proto-Indo-European *porkos "young pig") and Norse ørkn meaning "seal" .
Tolkien sometimes, particularly in The Hobbit, used the word "goblin" instead of "orc" to describe the same type of creature, with the smaller cave-dwelling variety that lived in the Misty Mountains being referred to as "goblin" and the larger ones elsewhere referred to as "orcs".
In Letter #210, Tolkien describes the Orcs as "degraded and repulsive versions of the (to Europeans) least lovely Mongol-types". Since the publication of Tolkien's epic novel, The Lord of the Rings, creatures called "orcs" have become a fixture of fantasy fiction and role-playing games. In these derivative sources, orcs and goblins are usually considered distinct races of goblinoids.
They are variously portrayed as physically stronger or weaker than humans, but always high in numbers. They often ride wolves or wargs. In many role-playing and computer games, though not in Tolkien's works, orcs are often depicted with pig-like faces. A possible explanation of this is the coincidence with Irish orc (cognate of English pork) that means 'swine'. An alternative theory is that they were often depicted as pig-like due to the tusked and pig-like description of the orco (ogre) in Canto 17 of Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. (The orco is, of course, described as pig-like because it gave Ariosto a chance to rhyme orco with porco "pig").
In the 1980s another orc archetype was introduced by the table-top miniature war games Warhammer Fantasy Battle and Warhammer 40,000; a heavily-muscled, green-skinned barbarian with exaggerated tusks, brow, and lower jaw. This is the first instance of an Orc being green. This style of orc has since become popular in a vast number of fantasy settings and games, including a signature of the Warcraft series of computer games and spin-offs.
As far as what otherwise might have influenced Tolkien, the OED lists a 1656 use (see below) of an English word ‘orke’ in a way reminiscent of giants, ogres and the like. It is presumed that such usage (orke=ogre) came into English via fairy tales from the continent, especially from Charles Perrault (17th cent. France), who himself borrowed most of his stories (and developed his 'ogre') from the 16th century Italian writers Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile.
In at least a dozen or more tales, Basile (d. 1632) used 'huorco' (or 'huerco', 'uerco') which is the Neapolitan form of ‘orco’ [modern It. ‘giant’, 'monster'] to describe a large, speaking, mannish beast (hairy and tusked) that lived away in a dark forest or garden, and that might be evil (capturing/eating humans), indifferent or even benevolent - all depending on the tale. (See especially his tales Peruonto and Lo Cuento dell'Uerco.)
The humanoid, non-maritime race of Orcs that exists in Middle-earth is J. R. R. Tolkien's invention. The term 'Orc' is usually capitalised in Tolkien's writing, but not necessarily in other sources. In Tolkien's writing, Orcs are of human shape, but smaller than Men, ugly, and filthy. In a private letter, Tolkien describes them as "squat, broad, flat-nosed, sallow-skinned, with wide mouths and slant eyes". Although not dim-witted, they are portrayed as dull and miserable beings, who are only able to destroy, not to create.
Orcs are first described in The Tale of Tinúviel as "foul broodlings of Melko [sic] who fared abroad doing his evil work". In The Fall of Gondolin Tolkien wrote that "all that race were bred by Melko of the subterranean heats and slime. Their hearts were of granite and their bodies deformed; foul their faces which smiled not, but their laugh that of the clash of metal, and to nothing were they more fain than to aid in the basest of the purposes of Melko."
Orcs eat all manner of flesh, including human. In Chapter II of The Two Towers, Grishnákh, an Orc from Mordor, claims that the Isengard Orcs eat Orc-flesh, but whether that is true or a statement spoken in malice is uncertain; what does seem certain is that, true or false, the Orcs resent that description. However, knowing what they are like and from later events, it seems likely that Orcs do eat other Orcs. Later in The Two Towers, Merry and Pippin are presented with meat by an orc after a fight occurred in which the Uruk-hai killed several orcs; the narration is vague as to what species the flesh belongs to. In the film, the famous line "Looks like meat's back on the menu, boys," occurs when an orc is killed by another in an attempt to protect their captives. Tolkien also describes them as bow-legged. They fight with ferocity (so long as a guiding 'will' [e.g., Morgoth or Sauron] compels/directs them). In some places, Tolkien describes Orcs as mainly being battle fodder (Cf. The Battles of the Fords of Isen). Orcs are used as soldiers by both the greater and lesser villains of The Lord of the Rings — Sauron and Saruman.
In some versions of his stories, Tolkien conceived Orcs to be Elves, enslaved by Morgoth, broken and twisted into his evil soldiers. Other versions (including notes made both early and late in Tolkien's life) have Orcs as 'parodies' or false-creations of Morgoth's that are animated solely by his evil will (or, perhaps, by his own essence diffused into each), and made intentionally to mock or spite Eru Ilúvatar's creations — the Eldar and Edain.
Tolkien also "suggested" that Men were cross-bred with Orcs under Morgoth's lieutenant, Sauron (and possibly under Morgoth himself). The fierce black orcs known as Uruk-Hai were created in this way. The process was later repeated during the War of the Ring by Saruman, enabling him to create the "fighting" Uruk-Hai.
When writing The Hobbit, Tolkien carried over the concept of the "orc" that he had developed in writing early versions of The Silmarillion, just as he carried over references to Elves, Gondolin, and other elements of the Silmarillion. In The Hobbit, however, he mostly used the word 'goblin' for these creatures, though the word "orc" occasionally appears: e.g. when Gandalf describes the Grey Mountains as being "simply stiff with goblins, hobgoblins, and orcs of the worst description". In The Lord of the Rings, "Orc" is used predominantly to describe such creatures, and the use of the term "goblin" seems restricted to use by the Hobbits, though the term is used by others and applied to the advanced Uruk-hai.
Dungeons & Dragons
In earlier editions of Dungeons & Dragons, the orc was a subtype of goblinoid. In the latest version, the orc has been promoted to its own subtype. Orcs are a species of aggressive mammalian carnivores that band together in tribes and survive by hunting and raiding. Orcs believe that in order to survive they must expand their territory, and so they are constantly involved in wars against many enemies: humans, elves, dwarves, goblins, and other orc tribes.
Orcs vary widely in appearance as a result of frequent crossbreeding with other species. In general, they resemble primitive humans with grey-green skin covered with coarse hair. Orcs have a slightly stooped posture, a low jutting forehead, and a snout instead of a nose. Orcs have well-developed canine teeth for eating meat and short pointed ears that resemble those of a wolf. Orcish snouts and ears have a slightly pink tinge. Their eyes are human, with a reddish tint that sometimes makes them appear to glow red when they reflect dim light sources in near darkness. This is actually part of their optical system, a pigment which gives them infravision. Male orcs are about 5½ to 6 feet tall. Females average 6 inches shorter than males. Orcs prefer to wear colors that most humans think unpleasant: blood red, rust red, mustard yellow, yellow green, moss green, greenish purple, and blackish brown. Their armor is unattractive besides -- dirty and often a bit rusty. Orcs speak Orcish, a language derived from older human and elvish languages. There is no common standard of Orcish, so the language has many dialects which vary from tribe to tribe. Orcs have also learned to speak local common tongues, but are not comfortable with them. Some orcs have a limited vocabulary in goblin, hobgoblin, and ogre dialects.
Earlier versions of Dungeons & Dragons depicted orcs slightly differently. They were Lawful Evil, and were sometimes described as having porcine snouts (an illustration in the 1977 Monster Manual depicted them with pig-like faces). An insightful passage from the Monstrous Manual reads, "Orcs have a reputation for cruelty that is deserved, but humans are just as capable of evil as orcs".
The half-orc in the original AD&D game was a standard player character race, typically assuming the assassin class. Half-orcs were removed in the second edition of the game but were revived, albeit altered, in D&D 3rd edition.
There is some controversy regarding orcs in the Dragonlance. The 1st edition AD&D Dragonlance Adventures hardbound rulebook states that orcs do not exist on Krynn, with ogres and minotaurs largely replacing their typical role. Second and 3rd edition Dragonlance supplements also remove orcs from the world of Krynn. The main confusion on the subject has occurred from a few Dragonlance novels and/or adventures in which the writer has accidentally included orcs. In particular, the novel Kendermore by Mary Kirchoff, where one of the main characters is a half-orc. This has occurred with other iconic races of Dungeons & Dragons, such as drow, that are not native to the Dragonlance setting. Some suggest that the presence of orcs in Dragonlance can be explained through planar or space travel as Krynn is connected to other Dungeons & Dragons worlds (where orcs exist) through the Planescape and Spelljammer settings.
In the Eberron campaign setting, orcs are portrayed in a more positive light. Given to spirituality and nature-worship, they established successful societies, learning druidic secrets from the green dragon Vvaraak while the goblinoid races built a mighty empire, some 16,000 years ago.
The orc societies took a massive blow during the daelkyr invasion 9,000 years ago, though it was the orcs now known as the Gatekeepers who were able to stop the invasion by sealing the daelkyr beneath Eberron and severing the link between Eberron and the daelkyr home plane of Xoriat. The Gatekeeper druidic sect remains a presence in Eberron, albeit one largely concerned with defending the world from outsiders, aberrations and other unnatural foes rather than politics.
In the Forgotten Realms campaign setting, orcs are divided into the orcs of the north (Mountain Orcs) and the orcs of the east (Gray Orcs). The gray orcs came to Faerûn through a portal opened in Mulhorand by an Imaskari wizard. The orcs' invasion caused the Orcgate Wars in which the pious gray orcs called avatars of their deities down to help them, and the Mulhorandi and Untheric people did the same. Led by Re these pantheons and their soldiers eventually broke the gray orcs' armies.
In the north, orcs are known for overbreeding and then spilling out in hordes upon the nations thereabouts, including the Silver Marches, Icewind Dale and, in times past, the old elven empires around Cormanthyr. Foremost amongst the orcs of this area is the Broken Arrow tribe headed by King Obould Many-Arrows, enemy of Drizzt Do'Urden.
In the World of Greyhawk, orcs can be found in almost all locales of the Flanaess, but are most heavily concentrated in the Pomarj and the Empire of Iuz. There is also known to exist a great orcish city known as Garel Enkdal in the Griff Mountains. The orcs of the Baklunish nation of Zeif are very different from their brethren, having very nearly been assimilated into human society, though they are still regarded as lower-class.
Orcs are prevalent in both the Known World, the Savage Coast, and the Hollow World. They were featured in GAZ 10, Orcs of Thar, which details their culture and more about the orc-dominated Broken Lands southeast of Glantri.
A variety of orc, called "scro" ("orcs" spelled backward), were featured in the Spelljammer setting. Unlike the typical orcs featured in Dungeons & Dragons, the scro were sophisticated and disciplined, with a strong, well-organized martial culture.
Following the precedents set in the earliest Dungeons & Dragons materials, a great many d20 System publishers have retained Orcs in their own works. While many of these publishers have examined orcs in greater depth than was the norm in earlier works, most of those have not reinvented this race as such, and it still tends to be identified with coarseness and brutality. Such products include Badaxe Games' Heroes of High Favor: Half Orcs and Skirmisher Publishing's Orcs of the Triple Death line of miniatures .
Games Workshop's Warhammer Fantasy and Warhammer 40,000 games feature Orcs as well (spelt Orks in Warhammer 40,000). The latter setting is unique for featuring Orks in a science fiction environment, capable of building crude, but functional vehicles, firearms and even spaceships. Anatomically, Warhammer Orcs are no taller but substantially broader than humans, with short legs and long arms much like an ape. They have massive heads which come directly forward on their necks, giving them a stooping appearance. They have tough thick green skin which is highly resistant to pain. Warhammer Orcs aren't very smart, but can be cunning at times. They are extremely warlike and the whole society is geared towards constant warfare. The constant need to fight is the expression of Orc culture, a fact that keeps the Orcs from forming anything but temporary alliances with each other. In combat they can transform even the most common object into a lethal killing instrument. Orcs tend to ally with Goblins (called Gretchin in Warhammer 40,000) and Snotlings, but their alliance is more of a matter of the Orcs bullying their smaller Goblinoid (Orkoid in Warhammer 40,000) cousins into being everything from servants, to Human (Goblin) shields, to an emergency food source. They worship a pair of gods known as Gork and Mork (other gods were included in earlier editions of the game, but are no longer included).
In the Warcraft computer game series Orcs are depicted as more ethically and socially complex than in most renditions. The great Orcish race is a savage but noble society made of shamanistic and fierce warriors. Their race came from the world of Draenor, and were corrupted by a demonic force known as the Burning Legion, as the Legion saw that they could make a most fierce and savage army. Under the Legion's influence, the Orcish Horde slaughtered the Draenei, who consequently fled from Draenor to escape the Legion, and then were led to the world of Azeroth. After two devastating wars, the Orcs were finally defeated on Azeroth and rounded up into internment camps. They remained there until a young Orc named Thrall, who was raised by humans, rallied them together, freed the Horde from their demonic taint, and helped return them to their shamanistic roots.
Warcraft Orcs are humanoid, but prodigiously muscled and green with broad noses and distinctive tusked mouths. Male orcs are significantly larger than humans, around 6 and a half feet tall when standing straight. Females are slightly larger than a human female, and while much more slender than their male counterparts, they are nonetheless well-muscled. Female orcs' tusks are very small to nearly nonexistent, arguably more exaggerated canines than tusks. Orc warriors are characterized by wearing scant armor with horned helmets and wielding axes as weapons. Warcraft is one of the few settings in which Orcs are not inherently evil, and, after significant plot developments in the latest Warcraft games, can even be heroic. One could consider the orcs unfairly treated by humans and not only misunderstood, but vilified. The humans' (of which were already somewhat xenophobic) enmity and prejudice towards the Orcs can be traced back to the first and second invasions, and could be fully justified, as it was orcs under the control of the Burning Legion that invaded.
Their political standpoint in the Warcraft universe is set as the leading race of the Horde, an association of races made to help their mutual survival. Trolls, a similar species in the game, live in the same area as the orcs in World of Warcraft - bringing many similarities between them besides the differences of their origins and body type.
Final Fantasy XI
In the MMORPG Final Fantasy XI, the Orcs are a tribe of Beastmen. Though the Orcish Empire lies far to the north, its advance forces have two large strongholds near the city of San d'Oria: the Davoi Monastery and Fort Ghelsba. The Orcs frequently launch small missions out of their strongholds, and they practically control Jugner Forest and Ronfaure. Personality-wise, they follow the same pattern as many fantasy Orcs: brutish, savage and slow witted. Their entire culture is centred on violence; service in the Orcish military is mandatory for both males and females, and social standing is determined by military rank. The Orcs formerly occupied a sacred garden in Ronfaure which was destroyed as the San d’Orian Empire expanded during the Age of Power, adding to their already fierce hatred of the peoples of Vana'diel. The San d'Orian cathedral teaches that during the Age of Darkness, the Orcs (and other beastmen) were constructed by the god Promathia to constantly battle with the human(oid)s of Vana'diel, adding to the distance between most people and beastmen. Orcs have a variety of classes...Warrior, Black Mage, Thief, White Mage, Ranger.
The Elder Scrolls series
The Orcs of the Elder Scrolls are generally depicted as of similar stature and build as large humans. Their culture produces proud, but often dull-witted, warriors (although some have demonstrated exceptional intelligence). They have bestial faces, with piggish, upturned noses and often with tusks. The female Orcs appear slightly more human, but also have a trace of the bestiality in their features. Until the events of Elder Scrolls II: Daggerfall, Orcs were rampaging monsters hunted by the other races. Their leader, Gortwog, tired of their nomadic lives and outlaw nature, used Numidium to found the city Nova Orsinium (New Orc Town, a mixture of Cyrodiilic and Aldmeris etymology), winning his race recognition (if not quite respect) as citizens of the Empire. Though some orcs have turned to this new way of life, many are still outlaws. Orcs have gendered-patronymic surnames, being either Gro-patronym for males or Gra-patronym for females. The main idea that separates the Elder Scroll Orcs from other fantasy series is that in the Elder Scrolls series, Orcs are accepted beings, and are not associated with evil. They are as respected as the other races in the empire, the Argonians, Bretons, the Dunmer, the Altmer, Imperials, Khajiit, the Nords, Redguard, and the Bosmer.
In Korean MMORPG Lineage II, orcs are one of the 5 races you can choose when creating a new character. The Orc race is the race of fire, so they worship a god of fire, Paagrio. Orcs live in the land of Elmore, where they have been banished after they were defeated by the human-elf alliance. Orcs have the second greatest physical strength and the fastest recovery rate. They have natural resistances for various negative effects, such as poison or sickness. They also have the fastest health and mana regain. However, they lack in accuracy, evasion, speed and casting speed. Orcs are now slowly preparing to take the command of Aden once again, after they were defeated the last time. They live for war and for pride.
The orcs in this game have stylized hair (mostly braided or tied) and heavily muscled bodies. Although they are not as exaggerated as the WH orcs, they still have fangs, but with more sexual appeal.
In the Hârn universal fantasy role-playing setting (and the distinct subsequently developed game system) created by N. Robin Crossby and published by Columbia Games, orcs are called Gargûn. While loosely derived from the Middle-earth legendarium, they have a distinct morphology and life-cycle similar to the naked mole rat. There are five distinct species of Gargun, none of whom can interbreed. They are squat, hairy, nasty, brutish, and short creatures. Some species are subterranean, while others can be found above ground in roving bands. One of the larger species is the Gargu-Khanu. Gargu-Khanu are often found in mixed-species colonies where they are overlords of the smaller vassal species, controlling access to the singular breeding queen of the other species as well as their own.
Earthdawn and Shadowrun
In the fantasy role-playing games Earthdawn and Shadowrun, orks are, in contrast to the common fantasy Orc, neither inherently good nor evil. In Earthdawn they have their place among the other name-giving races: Humans, dwarfs, elves, obsidimen, t'skrang, trolls, and windlings. In Shadowrun, orks are just one race among others on Earth in the years past 2050. They emerged during the Unexplained Genetic Expression in the year 2021 as either young humans changed to orks or ones born as orks from human parents. They are categorized as homo sapiens robustus, and are considered metahumans, like trolls, elves, and dwarfs. Orks are able to interbreed with humans and fellow metahumans. Despite this, their offspring will be of the race of only one of their parents. No half-breeds exist. They grow much faster than humans, reach maturity at the age of 12, and give birth to a litter of about four children, though six to eight are not uncommon. Their average life-expectancy is about 35 to 40 years. They are physically larger and stronger than humans. Their mental capacities are considered slightly inferior on average to humans, though they are still not as dull as the average troll.
Sovereign Stone Series
In the Sovereign Stone Trilogy, Orks' are a seafaring people, and with Humans, Elves, Dwarves and Lizardmen, one of the five great species that rule the land. They are very superstitious, believing in even the slightest omen. They are aligned to the element of water and their leader, The Captain of Captains, possesses one fifth of the prized Sovereign Stone as well as being a Dominion Lord.
The Killing Spirit
The Killing Spirit, a fantasy novel written by Sean-Michael Argo, engages the race of orcs from their own perspective. The orcs are presented as being the creations of a race of gods, called the Sheul. While similar to the Middle-earth legendarium, the orcs are divided into two groups. The first group are swarthy and stooped, living in clans on the coasts and mainland. The other group are tall and proud tribal warriors of dark forests and frozen mountains. The orcish women live in communal huts and choose mates based on perceived 'supremacy'. Unlike other fantasy settings, the orcs of this setting are portrayed as being highly intelligent and able to use magic, though have a brutish language that combines with their violent tendencies to create the illusion of simplicity. A unique element is that they are able to use magic to transform themselves into eldritch berzerkers, which they call the Gor-Angir, or 'the killing spirit'.
The Three Towns
In the fantasy realm of the Three Towns the orcs are a vile race of strong, squat, furry humaniods in league with the iron brotherhood (an evil race of men). The orcs originate in the foothills of mount drassa, and have crossbred with many of the native human barbarians there, it is speculated that their crossbreeding with the race of giants has created the ogres, but this is not explained in enough detail to know for certain. The orcs pillage the Three Towns in order to accumulate enough sacrifices to revive their blood god.
In Utopia, a web-based tactic game, Orcs are one of the 8 races. In Utopia, Orcs are known for good offensive abilities and weak capabilities in the art of magic and thievery. They are a destructive and evil race by description. In the real game, there are no good or evil races. There is no visual description of Orcs in Utopia because of the non-visual, text based nature of the game.
As of the "Age of Bravery" (36th age), orcs have been changed. They are now apart of only 6 races. They have gained the ability to spread the plague (an ability formerly owned solely by the now non-existent race of the undead). The orc's strong offensive capabilities have remained, but the hinderance to magic and thievery have been removed, and have been replaced by the disabilities of no benefit from honor and less effective sciences.
Arcanum: Of Steamworks and Magick Obscura
In Arcanum: Of Steamworks and Magick Obscura, orcs are descended from early humans, although they were popularly considered a monstrous race before the Industrial Revolution. They generally look like savage parodies of humans. Orcs are strong and hardy but live short life spans. Before the Industrial Revolution, they were nomads who lived off the land and occasionally off of people unlucky enough to travel near them. As time passes, more orcs move to cities, where their strength and stamina make them ideal factory workers. Although they are considered intellectually inferior, their lack of brain power may be the result of their poor upbringing and educational opportunities; people of orcish descent who receive the opportunity to reach their full potential prove to be as able-minded as humans.
Orkworld is a role-playing game which attempts to develop orcs as a complete and viable culture. The Orkworld version operates in a matriarchal society with very strong communal ties. They are attempting to hold off genocidal humans, elves, and dwarves.
Magic: The Gathering
In the CCG Magic:The Gathering, Orcs are portrayed as generally cowardly warriors who relied extensively on the smaller, less intelligent Goblins when waging warfare. Very few creatures of the "Orc" type were printed, most of which appeared in the Fallen Empires and Ice Age expansion sets. While Orcs were reprinted in more recent core sets, they never appeared in any subsequent expansion sets until Coldsnap. Coldsnap, however, introduces more Orc cards, along with a legendary Orc Shaman: Sek'kuar, Deathkeeper.
In the Steve Jackson card game Munchkin, Orcs are introduced into the game in the expansion set Munchkin 2: Unnatural axe. They are shown as a darker skinned, snaggle toothed race that garb themselves in loincloths and other "barbaric" customary items.
In the strategy game series Disciples, Orcs are the dominant race of the "greenskin" species, which also includes various goblins, trolls, ogres, and cyclopes. It is to be noted that there are two strains of orcs: "small mouth" types, which appear to be constitute a lower caste, and "large mouth" types, which are dominant, being stronger and better-equipped. Orc Kings may be of a still different strain, being bulkier. Although they are the most intelligent, and therefore ruling, race of all greenskins, they live in disorganized tribal societies, and although they are sometimes hired as mercenaries, they are usually considered no more than a nuisance by more civilised races.
Siege of Avalon
The role-playing game Siege of Avalon features a race of human-orc hybrids called Sha'ahoul. They are a race of nomads, whose beliefs forbid them from farming or building. When they discover human kingdoms (who do both), they form a unified horde and declare war on humans. Most of the Sha'ahoul look similar to the Warhammer orcs - large, stocky, filled with bloodlust, etc. There is a caste, however, who look very much like the humans of the Seven Kingdoms and are adept at magical arts. Their more brutish cousins prefer weapons to magic, but the leader of the Sha'ahoul horde understands the need for magic against the powerful wizards of the kingdoms. While their beliefs forbid them from building structures on the ground, the Sha'ahoul can still build primitive warships, which they use to set up blockades against human supply ships.
The Fallout series of games featured a race of Super Mutants, who physically and mentally resembled fantasy Orcs (big, green, ugly, not too bright, etc.). These Super Mutants are quite adept at using advanced weapons like plasma rifles and laser chainguns.
In the Palladium Fantasy Role-playing Game, orcs are a race of stupid, but strong, humanoids who may be descended from faeries. They are frequently the pawns of more powerful creatures, especially ogres, trolls, and breeds of giants, as they tend to respect strength (be it physical or magical). They have very strong family ties, however.
In Flintloque, a fantasy wargame based on the Napoleonic Wars Orcs come from Albion and Guinelia, representing the English and Irish, specifically. They have similar cultures to their real world counterparts at that time.
In the fantasy world of Ciredaun, Orcs are a the result of Ogre-Elf crossbreeding.
In the Gothic Role-playing Games, the orcs are in a war with the humans from the Kingdom of Myrtana. The only weapon Myrtana has against the Orcs is a magical Ore, found in the mines of the isle Khorinis, which is where the orcs originate.
A place called Orc village is filled with orcs. This village is located near Geffen and accessible via a kafra from Prontera. The orcs are of different kinds, namely orc ladies, orc warriors, high orcs, orc archers, orc lord and orc hero. Underneath the village, a dungeon is located. The dungeon is filled with undead orcs such as orc zombies, orc skeleton and zenorcs.
Orks are a species of savage and brutal warriors, who were the favourites of the god Bandos in the Third Age godwars. They are found as non-attackable NPCs in Zanaris, though they are a fightable and high-levelled opponent in the God Wars Dungeon. Hobgoblins are mentioned as being a cross between Goblins and Orks. Unlike Goblins however, Orks are represented as being more brutish, and there is no record of them serving as footsoldiers to any other god but Bandos, whereas the Goblins fought in many different armies.