The victim was usually a relative who had caused their death, or not properly observed the burial ceremonies, or who kept the deceased's possessions instead of destroying them following the tradition.
Mullo stands for one who is dead, so a Gypsy vampire would be called Mullo.
Female vampires could return, lead a normal life and even marry but would exhaust the husband, as if it were an Incubus (demon).
Anyone who had a hideous appearance, was missing a finger, or had animal appendages, etc. was believed to be a vampire.
Even plants or dogs, cats, or farm animals could turn into vampires. Pumpkins or melons kept in the house too long would start to move, make noises or show blood.
To ward off vampires, gypsies drove steel or iron needles into a corpse's heart and placed bits of steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears and between the fingers at the time of burial. They also placed hawthorn in the corpse's sock or drove a hawthorn stake through the legs. Further measures included driving stakes into the grave, pouring boiling water over it, decapitating the corpse, or burning it.
- Guiley, Rosemary E. The Encyclopedia of Vampires, Werewolves, and Other Monsters (2004,Checkmark Books) ISBN 0-816-04684-0
- Tatomir Vukanovic The Vampire Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 3rd ser. Part 1: 36(3-4): 125-133; Part 2: 37(1-2): 21-31; Part 3: 37(3-4): 111-118; Part 4: 39(1-2): 44-55. Reprinted in Vampires of the Slavs, ed. Jan Perkowski (Cambridge, Mass.: Slavica, 1976), 201-234.
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